Being similar in size and configuration as the Lockheed Hercules, the An-12 can be regarded as its Soviet counterpart. Nevertheless, the two are easily distinguished as the An-12 has a glaced nose, outer wings with anhedral and four wheels on each main landing gear leg. The Y-8 is the Chinese version.
The Antonov An-124 Ruslan is the only aircraft with swept wing wings attached on top of the fuselage, a conventional tail unit (low horizontal stabiliser) and four jet engines under the wings.
The An-140 is the predecessor of the An-24 and has about the same basic configuration. However the twin-wheel main landing gears retract in the fuselage instead of the engine nacelles. Also the aircraft has horizontal stabilisers attached with a significant dihedral. Both characteristics also make it clearly recognisable from the CN235 and G222.
Being the only passenger aircraft in this category this type is easily recognisable by the many cabin windows.
Being based on the An-158 the external resemblance with that aircraft is logical. The cockpit windows, wings, engines and tail are much alike. However, the An-178 has a tandem main landing gear, with wheels behind each other instead of side-by-side. Also the rear fuselage is ramped up to allow loading and unloading cargo at the rear.
As one of the largest single engine biplanes ever built, the Antnov An-2 and derivatives are quite easy to recognose. They come with piston and turboprop engines, which results in a different appearance. The Chinese version is the Nanchang Y-5.
Antonov An-22 Anteii
While the sound of the contra rotating propellers is already very characteristic, this does not help you with the engines shut off. But otherwise the large size and H-tail are also good recognition points of the Antonov 22.
Antonov An-225 Mriya
Once the biggest aircraft in the world, the Antonov An-225 is still impressive. It is an enlarged Antonov 124, with six engines and an H-tail. The main purpose was to carry the Russian space shuttle, the Buran.
This Soviet designed family of turboprop aircraft is similar in size and appearance as the Fokker F27: both have high wings and long main landing gear legs, retracting backward in the engine nacelles. While the An-24, An-26, An-30 and An-32 are quite different, they are all clearly derived from the same basic aircraft, the An-24. The Y7 is the Chinese version of the aircraft, further developed in the MA60.
The An-70 was to be the successor of the An-12, but this has not (yet) materialised. It is a bit bigger than its predecessor with as clear recognition point the counter-rotating props. The forward prop has eight blades, the aft prop six.